عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout history, an inward (or bāṭinī) understanding of sharia has had ups and downs among Shiite scholars. Although there are few Shiite scholars who deny an “inward” aspect for the religion, ignorance of the inward aspect of sharia has culminated in a radical and austere anti-mystic outward (ẓāhir) approach among Shiite scholars. ShahīdThānī’s inward approach is in line with the common approach adopted by Muslim mystics. For him, assigning an original place to the inward and a subsidiary place to the outward adds to the importance of the inward aspect of the religion. On this approach, official scholars are in need of true scholars who master true knowledge and whose place is superior to outward scholars. According to ShahīdThānī, among human body parts and actions, the main focus of the religion consists in the heart and actions related to it. As a prominent faqīh (jurisprudent), he has always observed the inward aspect of the reality as the authentic, in addition to outward knowledge such as fiqh (jurisprudence), worships, and understanding the Qur’an, without denying or diminishing outward aspects. By considering the inward approach of prominent Imāmī scholars and jurisprudents, one can avoid the dangers of the outward approach that has begun to be popular among some Sunni, and even Shiite, scholars today.