فلسفه و بحرانِ خرد در اندیشه‌ هورکهایمر

نوع مقاله: علمی ـ پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی مفهوم فلسفه در اندیشه‌ ماکس هورکهایمر می‌پردازد. هورکهایمر میان دو گونه‌ خرد، یعنی خرد ذهنی و خرد عینی تمایز قائل شده و استدلال می‌کند که اندیشه معاصر غرب، در نتیجۀ چیرگی خرد ذهنی دست‌خوش بحران شده ‌است. از جمله تجلّی‌های این بحران ناسازگاری، نگرش‌های نسبی‌گرایانه و جزم‌اندیشانه به مفهوم حقیقت است. هورکهایمر راه برون‌رفت از این بحران را در مفهومی دیالکتیکی از فلسفه‌ می‌جوید. این مقاله به بررسی تحلیل هورکهایمر از دو گونه خرد و نیز تشریح تناقض‌های حاصل از چیرگی یک گونه خردورزی بر گونۀ دیگر می‌پردازد. به‌ویژه نگرش هورکهایمر درباره مفهوم حقیقت بررسی شده و مقاله درصدد پاسخ‌گویی به این پرسش است که آیا فلسفه او قادر است مفهومی بینابینی از حقیقت ارائه دهد که از جزم‌اندیشی و نسبی‌گرایی به‌یکسان دور باشد؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Philosophy and the Crisis of Reason in Horkheimer's Thought

نویسنده [English]

  • Aidin Keikhaee
Assistant Professor, Institute for Research on Humanities and Cultural Studies
چکیده [English]

This essay is concerned with Max Horkheimer’s notion of philosophy in the age of subjective reason. Horkheimer distinguishes between subjective reason and objective reason and argues that the dominance of the former in contemporary Western thought is the mark of what he calls the crisis of reason. According to Horkheimer, the contradiction between the relativistic and absolutist notions of truth is but one manifestation of this crisis. In response, he proposes his idea of philosophy. This essay reviews Horkheimer’s analysis of the two types of reason and examines the contradictions associated with the preponderance of one over the other. In particular, this essay is concerned with whether or not Horkheimer’s notion of philosophy is capable of establishing an account of truth that transcends the contradiction of absolutism and relativism, that is, an account of truth that does not fall into the abyss of absolutism while at the same time escaping the danger of relativism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Max Horkheimer
  • subjective reason
  • objective reason
  • dialectic
  • dialectical philosophy
  • Crisis of Reason
  • relativism
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