نقش هستی‌شناسی شهودی، ساخت‌مندی و تمثیل در تخیل خلاق علمی

نوع مقاله: علمی ـ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 کارشناسی‌ارشد فلسفه، دانشکده الهیات و معارف اهل‌بیت(ع)، دانشگاه اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

این مقاله تحلیلی بر تخیل خلاق علمی به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل پیشرفت علم بر مبنای الگوهای نظری و نتایج تجربی علوم شناختی ارا‌‌ئه می‌دهد. بیشتر استنتاج‌های استقرایی انسان ‌با مناسبات هستی‌شناسی شهودی عجین است؛ یعنی از راه استدلال به‌دست نیامده‌اند. هستی‌شناسی شهودی یک مجموعۀ محدودِ مقوله‌بنیاد است که چارچوب‌های نظری را شکل می‌دهد. خلاقیت علمی با انتظارات هستی‌شناختیِ پیشین ساخت‌مند شده است و بنابراین پیشرفت علم در گرو جدایی مسیر از هستی‌شناسی شهودی است. تمثیل‌ها ابزار معرفتیِ قدرتمندی جهت غلبۀ دانشمندان بر محدودیت‌های یادشده است، اما تمثیل‌ها نیز تحت تأثیر هستی‌شناسی شهودی‌اند؛ زیرا دانشمندان در محدودۀ ذهن خود از تمثیل استفاده می‌کنند. استفاده از دانش موجود در خلاقیت، تخیل ساخت‌مند است، پس پیشرفت علم براساس معرفت‌های موجود است و عملِ تولید انگاره‌های خلاقانه به یک شیوه است: ایجاد خلاقانۀ اکتشاف یا اختراع جدید از بعضی مفاهیم آشنا. رابطۀ مشاهده و نظریه‌ در علم برمبنای ساختار فوق از طریق تخیل خلاق برقرار می‌شود، نه تعمیم الگوهای موجود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Intuitive Ontology, Constructivism, and Analogy in Creative Scientific Imagination

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Ebadi 1
  • Ammar Ishaq 2
1 Associate professor, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 MA student of philosophy, Faculty of Theology, University of Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This paper provides an analysis of creative scientific imagination as the most important factor in the advancement of science in accordance to theoretical models and empirical findings of cognitive sciences. Most inductive inferences are intertwined with intuitive ontological relations; that is, they are not arrived at through reasoning. Intuitive ontology is a restricted categorical set, constituting theoretical frameworks. Scientific creativity is constructed by prior ontological expectations, and thus, the progress of science is owed to parting way from intuitive ontology. Analogies are powerful epistemic tools at the disposal of scientists to overcome such restrictions. Nevertheless, analogies are also affected by intuitive ontology, since they deploy analogies within the limits of their own minds. To deploy the repertoire within their creativity is to have constructed imagination. Thus, the progress of science is based on available body of knowledge, and the production of creative images is done in one way: to creatively bring about a discovery or an invention of certain familiar concepts. The relation between observation and theory in science is based on this construction via creative imagination, rather than a generalization of available models.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intuitive ontology
  • analogy
  • creativity
  • scientific imagination
  • structured imagination
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