اراده آزاد؛ دیدگاه‌‌‌های معاصر در باب ارادۀ آزاد

نوع مقاله: تخصصی

نویسنده

bah.alizadeh@gmail.com

چکیده

بیش از دو هزار سال است که مسئلۀ ارادۀ آزاد و دترمینیسم ذهن فیلسوفان را به خود مشغول ساخته است. این مسئله در سال‌‌‌های اخیر به شکل و شیوه‌‌‌ای نو، دوباره احیا شده است. در این مقاله نخست به دیدگاه «شهود متعارف» و تقابل آن با دترمینیسم پرداخته شده است. همسازی یا ناهمسازی ارادۀ آزاد و دترمینیسم، مسئلۀ همسازی[i] نامیده می‌‌‌‌‌‌شود. به‌‌‌واسطۀ پاسخ‌‌‌‌‌‌هایی که به مسئلۀ همسازی داده شده، انشعاباتی اساسی در حوزۀ ارادۀ آزاد پدید آمده است. همسازگرایی و ناهمسازگرایی دو دیدگاه عمده به‌‌‌حساب می‌‌‌آیند. ناهمسازگرایی نیز دو گونۀ اصلی دارد که عبارتند از اختیار‌‌‌‌‌‌گرایی و دترمینیسم سخت (ناهمسازگرایی سخت). بخش پایانی مقاله به رویکرد علمی و نسبت آن با مسئلۀ ارادۀ آزاد اختصاص دارد. آزمایش بنیامین لیبت و آزمایش نیکولز از آزمایش‌‌‌هایی‌‌‌اند که به آنها اشاره شده است. این آزمایش‌‌‌ها پیامدهای متفاوت و حتی متضادی داشته‌‌‌اند



 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Free will: Contemporary Views

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Alizadeh
چکیده [English]

More than 2000 years, the problem of free will and determinism vexed philosophers’ minds. It has been revived in recent years and continues to be a lively debate.  In this article I first deal with the view of common sense and its challenge with determinism. Is free will compatible with determinism? In response to this question, two major views –­ compatibilism and incompatibilism ­- have emerged. A standard characterization of determinism states that every event is causally necessitated by antecedent events. Compatibilism argues that free will and determinism are compatible. This is opposed to incompatibilism which is the view that there is no way to reconcile a belief in a deterministic universe with a belief in a concept of free will. Hard determinism is a version of incompatibilism that accepts the assumption of determinism and rejects the idea of free will. Libertarianism accepts the existence of free will.  Each of these theories considers a meaning of free will that is not acceptable on another approach; therefore, providing a comprehensive definition of free will is impossible. I also consider views about scientific inquiries and their relationship to philosophical theories on free will. The final section of this paper is devoted to scientific experiments and their relations to the problem of free will.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Free Will
  • Libertarianism
  • determinism
  • compatibilism
  • incompatibilism
  1. Ayer, A. J., (1954) “Freedom and Necessity”, In his Philosophical Essays, New York: St. Martin's Press.
  2. Bsihop, Robert, C., (2001) "Chaos, Indeterminism, and Free Will", published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed. by Robert Kane (Oxford University press.
  3. Dennett, Daniel, (1984) Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Having, Cambridge. MA: MIT Press.
  4. Double, Richard., (1991) The Non-Reality of Free Will, New York: Oxford University Press.
  5. Fischer, John Martin, & Kane, R & Pereboom, D & Vargas, M, (2007). Four Views On Free Will, ed, Ernest Sosa, Blackwell Publishing.
  6. Fischer, John Martin, (1994) The Metaphysics of free will: An essay on Control, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  7. ـــــــــ , (1998)“Frankfurt-type Examples and Semi-Compatibilism, ” in Robert Kane, ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. Frankfurt, Harry, (1982) "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person," in Watson.
  9. ـــــــــ , (2003) “Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibilities, ” in Gary Watson, ed., 2nd ed., Free Will, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Ginet, Carl, (1996) “In Defense of the Principle of Alternative Possibilities: Why I Don’t Find Frankfurt’s Argument Convincing”, Philosophical Perspectives, vol. 10.
  11. Hobbes, Thomas, (1958) Leviathan, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  12. Hodgson, David, (2001) “Quantum Physics, Consciousness, and Free Will”, published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed. by Robert Kane (Oxford University press.
  13. Hume, D., (1955) [1743]: An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. L. Selby-Bigge (ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  14. Hunt, David, (2000) “Moral Responsibility and Avoidable Action”, Philosophical Studies, vol. 97.
  15. Inwagen, Peter van, (1983) An Essay on Free Will, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  16. Ishtiyaque, Haji., (2001) "Compatibilist Views of Freedom and Responsibility", published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will.ed by Robert Kane, Oxford University press.
  17. Kane, Robert, (1985) Free Will and Values, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  18. ـــــــــ , (2001) Some Neglected Pathways in the Free Will Labyrinth", published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed. by Robert Kane, Oxford University press.
  19. ـــــــــ , (2005) A Contemporary Introduction To Free Will, Oxford University Press.
  20. Kant, Immanuel, (1958) Critique of Pure Reason, Trans. N. K. Smith. London: Macmillan. Originally published in 1881 (2nd ed. 1787).
  21. Kapitan, Tomis, (2001) “A Master Argument For Incompatibilism?”, published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed. by Robert Kane, Oxford University press.
  22. Libet, B., (1985) ‘Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action’, Behav. and Brain Sciences.
  23. ـــــــــ , (1989) ‘Conscious subjective experience vs. unconscious mental functions: A theory of the cerebral processes involved’, in Models of Brain Function, ed. R. M. J. Cotterill, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  24. ـــــــــ , (1996) ‘Neural time factors in Conscious and Unconscious Mental Function’, in Toward a Science of Consciousness, ed. S.R. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak, A. Scott, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  25. ـــــــــ , & Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W. & Pearl, D.K., (1983a) ‘Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness potential): The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act’, Brain, 106.
  26. Locke, John, (1959) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Ed. A. C. Fraser. New York: Dover. (Originally published in 1689).
  27. Lucretius, (1951) The Nature of Universe, II, Lines 250-255, Latham translation.
  28. Manuel, Vargas, (2006) "Philosophy and the Folk:on some implications of experimental work for philosophical debates on free will", In the Journal of Cognition and Culture, Vol. 6, No. 1-2.
  29. Mele, Alfred & Robb, David, (1998) “Rescuing Frankfurt-style Cases”, Philosophical Review 107.
  30. Nahmias, E., (2005) Morris, S., Nadelhoffer, T. & Turner, J. forthcoming. “Surveying Freedom: Folk Intuitions about Free Will and Moral Responsibility.”, Philosophical Psychology.vol 18, no 5.
  31. Nozick, Robert, (1981) Philosophical Explanations, Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
  32. O'Connor, Timothy, (2001) "Libertarian Views: Dualist and Agent-Causal Theories", published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed. by Robert Kane, Oxford University press.
  33. ـــــــــ , (2002) “Free will”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/freewill.
  34. Pereboom, D., (2003) Living Without Free Will, Cambridge university press.
  35. Taylor, Christopher, & Dennet, Daniel, (2001) "Who's Afraid of Determinism? Rethinking Causes and Possibilities", published in The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, ed by Robert Kane, Oxford University press.
  36. Tillish, P., (1951-1963) Systematic Theology, 3 Volumes, Chicago: university of Chicago.
  37. von Wright, (1971) G. H. Explanation and Understanding, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  38. ـــــــــ , (1974a) Causality and determinism, New York: Columbia University Press.
  39. Walter Henrik, (2001) Neurophilosophy of Free Will. From Libertarian Illusions to a Concept of Natural Autonomy, Translated by Cynthia Klohr, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology/ MIT press.
  40. Whitehead, A. N., (1926) Science and The Modern World, Cambridge University Press.
  41. Widerker, David, (1995) “Libertarianism and Frankfurt’s Attack on the Principle of Alternative Possibilities”, Philosophical Review, 104.
  42. Wolf, Susan, (2002) “Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility.” In Robert Kane, ed., Free Will, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  43. ـــــــــ, (1990) Freedom Within Reason, Oxford New University Press.