رویارویی با مسئلۀ آگاهی

نوع مقاله: تخصصی

نویسنده

Marziye.Lotfi@Gmail.Com

چکیده

چالمرز، در این مقاله با تمرکز بر مسئلۀ دشوار آگاهی در صدد است نشان دهد چرا تبیین این مسئله تا این اندازه دشوار است. وی از کارهای اخیر که روش‌‌‌های تحویلی را برای پرداختن به آگاهی در چارچوب عصب‌‌‌شناسی و علوم‌‌‌شناختی به کار می‌‌‌گیرند، انتقاد می‌‌‌کند. در مرحلۀ بعد، او ادعا می‌‌‌کند این روش‌‌‌ها برای حلّ مسئلۀ دشوار ناگزیر با شکست مواجه می‌‌‌شوند. به زعم وی، برای دست یافتن به راه حلّ این مسئله، ناگزیریم به سمت نوعی تبیین غیر‌‌‌تحویلی از آگاهی حرکت کنیم و به این ترتیب، نظریه‌‌‌ای طبیعی‌‌‌گرایانه به‌‌‌دست می‌‌‌آید.
او در نهایت، نظریۀ پیشنهادی‌اش را ارائه می‌‌‌دهد. نظریه‌‌‌ای غیر‌‌‌تحویلی که بر سه اصل روان‌‌‌شناختی انسجام ساختاری، ثبات سازمانی و دوحیثی‌‌‌بودگی اطلاعات استوار است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Facing up to the Problem of Consciousness

نویسنده [English]

  • Marzieh Lotfi
چکیده [English]

In this paper, focusing on the hard problem of consciousness, Chalmers tries to give an account of why it is so difficult to explain. He criticizes some recent works that use reductive explanation within the framework of neuroscience and cognitive science. This being done, he goes on to argue that these methods fail to come to grips with the hard problem. Then, he argues that, in order to attain a solution for the problem, we must move to a new kind of non-reductive explanation. This way, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. Finally he presents his own candidate; a non-reductive theory based on three psychological principles: structural coherence, organizational invariance, and double-aspect view of information.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • hard problem of consciousness
  • structural coherence
  • organizational invariance
  • reductive explanation
  • naturalistic account
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