برون‌گرایی و برهان جابجایی آرام

نوع مقاله: تخصصی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه علوم و فرهنگ اسلامی

چکیده

مطابق برون‌گرایی در محتوا، دست‌کم محتوای برخی از حالات التفاتی بر ویژگی‌های درونی سوپروین نمی‌شود؛ به این معنا که ممکن است دو نفر از جهت ویژگی‌های درونی کاملاً همانند یک‌دیگر باشند، و در عین حال محتوای حالات التفاتی آنها متفاوت باشد. تا کنون استدلال‎‌های متفاوتی به نفع برون‌گرایی ارائه شده است که به پیدایش گونه‌های مختلفی از این دیدگاه انجامیده است، از جمله: برون‌گرایی انواع طبیعی، برون‌گرایی منفرد و برون‌گرایی اجتماعی. یکی از مسائل مهمی که پیرامون برون‌گرایی مطرح شده این است که آیا برون‌گرایی در محتوا با آموزۀ دسترسی ویژۀ انسان به محتوای حالات التفاتی خود، سازگار است یا نه. برهان جابجایی آرام از جمله برهان‌هایی است که برای اثبات ناسازگاری میان این دو آموزه طراحی شده است. در این نوشتار، برخی از مهم‌ترین پاسخ‌ها به این برهان را گزارش و  بررسی کرده، در پایان پاسخ پیشنهادی خود را مطرح خواهم کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Externalism and the Argument from Gradual Replacement

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahmoud Morvarid
چکیده [English]

According to content externalism, the contents of at least some of the intentional states do not supervene upon the internal properties; that is, it is possible to have two duplicate subjects with regard to their internal properties, the contents of whose intentional states are different. So far various arguments have been raised in favor of externalism which have given rise to different versions of this view, including the natural-kind externalism, individual externalism, and social externalism. One of the most important problems regarding externalism is the question of its consistency with the idea of the subject's privileged access to the contents of his own intentional states. The gradual replacement is one of the arguments for the inconsistency between the two ideas. In this paper, I will introduce and examine some of the most significant responses to this argument, and finally I shall propose my own response.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content Externalism
  • Natural-Kind Externalism
  • Individual Externalism
  • Social Externalism
  • Privileged Access
  • Argument from Gradual Replacement
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