عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Mullā Shamsa Gilānī takes the soul to be spiritual in origin and spiritual in survival, and rejects the theory of the material origin of the soul as incompatible with religious evidence. Mulla Ṣadrā's primary answer to this objection is based on the distinction between the soul (nafs) and spirit (rūḥ); thus rūḥ in religious texts does not mean the soul; souls are material in origin, though spirits are immaterial in their origins. However, Mullā Ṣadrā is not always committed to this distinction. His main answer to this objection is that the soul's existence before this world is to mean that they exist in their causes, not that they exist as souls. Mullā Muḥammad Sādiq Ardistāni also defends the theory of the spiritual origin of the soul. In his opinion, to say that the soul has an origin is to contradict both the immateriality of the soul and its survival. In this paper, I will defend the Ṣadrāean view and its compatibility with the religious doctrines.