عنوان مقاله [English]
By an appeal to his philosophical principles—the gradation of existence and the soul's substantial motion (al-ḥaraka al-jawharīyya)—Mullā Ṣadrā denied the type-unity of human beings; he takes humans to be of different types because of their volitional substantial motion. Philosophers, such as Ibn Sīnā, Fakhr Rāzī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī and Suhrawardī, have dealt with the problem of the type-unity of humans, but they lacked the philosophical principles that Sadra had at his disposal. In various works, Sadra presents several arguments for the rejection of the type-identity of humans and provides, instead, a formulation of their type-variety. Given his theses of natural and imaginal (mithālī) bodies and the soul's substantial motion, we can come to the human type-variety in this world.