عنوان مقاله [English]
In this paper, I will deal with the problem of the influence of anthropological and methodological presuppositions in theorizing in humanities in order to open a discussion about localized human and social sciences. The emphasis of Muslim philosophers on the knowledge and the conception of universals in the definition of human beings is, in my view, inadequate to establish localized humanities. The theory of conventional ideas, put forward by ‘Allama Ṭabāṭabā’ī, is a different approach emphasizing, on the one hand, on the element of will, action and the instinct of deployment in human understanding, and, on the other hand, in order to show it, it appeals to inductive and intuitive methods. I introduce this as a different approach to the foundation of localized human sciences. The ability of this theory in understanding and justifying the social, in comparison with earlier philosophical approaches, is its distinctive feature. According to the theory of conventional ideas, the civilized characters of human beings is out of urgency. This is contrary to the well-known view among philosophers that it originates in human nature. According to ‘Allama Ṭabāṭabā’ī, cultural differences can be accounted for in terms of differences in conventional conceptions that come out of concrete volitions.