نوخاسته‌گرایی وجودشناختی و آموزه‌های زندگی پس از مرگ

نوع مقاله: تخصصی

نویسنده

yasserkhoshnevis@yahoo.com

چکیده

در این مقاله، ابتدا دیدگاه نوخاسته‌گرایی علّی دربارۀ ویژگی‌ها به عنوان بدیلی برای تحویل‌گرایی مطرح می‌‌شود. سپس، نشان داده می‌‌شود که ویژگی آگاهی کیفی واجد شاخصه‌های ویژگی‌های نوخاسته است. در ادامه، دیدگاه نوخاسته‌گرایی جوهری تبیین می‌‌شود و سه نسخه از این دیدگاه از یک‌دیگر تمیز داده می‌‌شوند. در بخش پایانی، نسبت چهار نسخه ذکر شده از نوخاسته‌گرایی با آموزه‌های زندگی پس از مرگ در حالت‌های متجسد و نامتجسد بررسی می‌‌شود و شرایط لازم برای سازگاری این دیدگاه‌ها با آموزه‌های مذکور استخراج می‌‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Ontological Emergentism and Afterlife Doctrines

نویسنده [English]

  • Yasser Khoshnevis
چکیده [English]

In this paper, I introduce the causal version of property emergentism as an alternative for reductionism. After that, I show that the property of qualitative consciousness has the characteristics of emergent properties. Then, I elaborate the substance emergentism thesis and distinguish three versions of it.  In the final section, I consider the relationship between four mentioned versions of emergentism with afterlife doctrines, both in embodied and disembodied states and identify necessary conditions for consistency of the considered versions with the afterlife doctrines.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emergentism
  • consciousness
  • reductionism
  • Bodily resurrection
  1. Armstrong, D. M., (1983) What is a Law of Nature?, Cambridge University Press.
  2. Baker, R. L., (2000), Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Block, N., (1978) “Troubles With Functionalism”, reprinted in Block, N (ed), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 268-305, Harward University Press, 2006.
  4. ــــــــــــــ , (2002) “Some Concepts of Consciousness”, reprinted in Chalmers, D., (ed), pp. 206 ـ 218, online edition: http: //www. nyu. edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/Abridged.
  5. Chalmers, D., (1995) “Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness”, in Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 200 ـ 219.
  6. ــــــــــــــ , (1996) Conscious Mind, in Search of a Fundamental Theory, Oxford University Press.
  7. Crick, F., and Koch, C, 1999, “The Unconscious Homunculus” in Metzinger (ed), Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions, pp. 102-110.
  8. Dennett, D., (1988) “Quinning Qualia”, reprinted in Chalmers, D., (ed), 2002, Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Oxford University Press, pp. 226-246.
  9. Foster, J., (2001) “A Brief Defense of the Cartesian View,” in Corcoran, K (ed), Soul, Body, and Survival Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons, Cornell University Press, pp. 14- 29.
  10. Hasker, W,. (1999) The Emergent Self, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  11. Hick, J., (1973) Philosophy of Religion, pp. 97- 117, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice ـ Hall.
  12. Humphreys, P., (1997) “How Properties Emerge?”, in Philosophy of Science, vol. 64, pp. 1-17, online edition: http: //www. people. virginia. edu/~pwh2a/.
  13. Humphreys, P., (2006) “Emergence”, in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (ed) Borchert D., New York: Macmillan, online edition: http: //www. people. virginia. edu/~pwh2a/.
  14. Hume, D., (1739) Treatise of Human Nature, L. A. Selby ـ Bigge (ed), Oxford University Press, 1962.
  15. Jackson, F., (1982) “Epiphenomenal Qualia”, in Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 32, pp. 127- 36, online edition: philosophy2. ucsd. edu/~rarneson/Courses/FrankJacksonphil1. pdf.
  16. Jehle, D., (2006) “Kim against Dualism”, in Philosophical Studies, vol. 130, pp. 565- 578.
  17. Kim, J., (1992) “Downward Causation in Emergentism and Nonreductive Physicalism” in Beckermann, A., Flohr, H. and Kim. J., Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism, pp. 49 - 93, Berlin: de Gruyter.
  18. ــــــــــــــ , (2001) “Lonely Souls: Causality and Substance Dualism” reprinted in O’Connor, T. and Robb, D (eds), Philosophy of Mind, Contemporary Readings, 2003, Routledge publishing, pp. 65 - 78.
  19. ــــــــــــــ , (2003) “Supervenience, Emergence, Realization, Reduction”, in Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics, Oxford University Press.
  20. Kripke, A. S., (1972), Naming and Necessity, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
  21. Levine, J., (1983), “Materialism and Qualia: The Explanatory Gap”, in Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 54, pp. 354 - 361.
  22. Levine, J., (2007), “Anti ـ materialist Arguments and Influential Replies”, in Velman, M. and Shneider, S., 2007, The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 371 - 380.
  23. Lowe, E. J., (1996) Subjects of Experience, Cambridge University Press.
  24. ــــــــــــــ , (2008) Personal Agency, The Metaphysics of Mind and Action, Oxford University Press.
  25. ــــــــــــــ , (2009) “Ontological Dependence”, in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/ontologicaldepencence/.
  26. Nagel, T., (1974) “What is Like to Be a Bat”, reprinted in Block, N (ed), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 159 ـ 168, Harward University Press, 2006.
  27. O’Connor, T., (1994) “Emergent Properties”, in American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 99 -104.
  28. O'Connor, T. & Jacobs, J., (2003) “Emergent Individuals”, in Philosophical Quarterly, Online Edition: http: //php. indiana. edu/~toconnor/philosophical_essays. html.
  29. O'Connor, T. and Jacobs, J., (2010) “Emergent Individuals and the Resurrection”, Online Edition:web. mac. com/jonathandjacobs/Site/Papers. . . /EmergenceResurrection. pdf.
  30. ــــــــــــــ , (2005) “The Metaphysics of Emergence”, Online Edition:http: //php. indiana. edu/~toconnor/philosophical_essays. html.
  31. Olsen, E., (2008) “Personal Identity” in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: plato. stanford. edu/entries/identity ـ personal/.
  32. Putnam, H., (1960), “Minds and Machines”, reprinted in Mind, Language and Reality, pp. 362 - 385, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  33. Robinson, H., (2007), “Dualism” in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/dualism/
  34. ــــــــــــــ , (2009) “Substance”, in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/substance/.
  35. Rosenthal, D., (1993) “Thinking that One Think,” reprinted in Rosenthal, D (ed), 2005, The Nature of Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 46 ـ 70.
  36. Ryle, G., (1949) “Descartes' Myth”, reprinted in Rosenthal, D (ed), The nature of Mind, pp. 51-57, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  37. Seager W. and Allen ـ Hermanson, S, (2010) “Panpsychcism” ”, in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition:  http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/panpsychism/.
  38. Shrader, W. E., (2005) The Metaphysics of Ontological Emergence, (Doctroal Dessertation), University of Notre Dame.
  39. Shoemaker S., (1980) “Causality and Properties”, reprinted in Causality, Identity and Mind, pp. 206- 233, Oxford University Press.
  40. Stephan, A., (1999) “Varieties of Emergence”, in Evolution and Cognition, Vol. 5, No. 1, 50 -59.
  41. Stoljar, D, (2009) “Physicalism”, in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/physicalism.
  42. Strawson, P. F., (1959) Individuals, An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics, Routledge Publishing, 2003.
  43. Swinburne, R., (1997) The Evolution of the Soul, 2nd edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  44. Toner, P., (2008) “Emergent substance”, in Philosophical Studies, No., 141, pp. 281 ـ 297.
  45. van Inwagen, P., (1978) “The Possibility of Resurrection”, in International Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, vil. 9, pp. 114 ـ 21, reprinted in Paul Edwards, P (ed), (1992) Immortality, New York: Macmillan, pp. 242- 46.
  46. van Inwagen, P., (1990) Material Beings, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  47. van Inwagen, P., (1998) “The Possibility of Resurrection”, reprinted with postsciprt in The Possibility of Resurrection and Other Essays in Christian Apologetics, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 45-52.
  48. van Gulick, R., (2005), “Consciousness”, in Zalta, E (ed), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online edition: http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/consciousness/.
  49. Zimmerman, D., (1999) “The Compatibility of Materialism and Survival: The ‘Falling Elevator’ Model”, in Faith and Philosophy, vol. 16, pp. 194 ـ 212.
  50. Zimmermann, D., (2005) “Dualism in the Philosophy of Mind”, in Craig. W (ed), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, NewYork: Macmillan, 2007, pp. 112 -113.