عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study adopts a descriptive-analytical approach to offer a definition of "knowledge by presence" (al-ʿilm al-ḥuḍūrī) based on the perspectives of Mullā Ṣadrā, as well as the interpretations provided by two Quranic exegeses, namely al-Ṣāfī and al-Mīzān. The objective of this article is to evaluate the compatibility between Mullā Ṣadrā's philosophical definition of knowledge by presence and the interpretations offered by his commentators. Additionally, it aims to examine the extent to which this perspective was utilized in Quranic exegesis by his commentators and followers. Ultimately, the analysis reveals that Quranic exegeses adopt a three-layered approach in defining knowledge by presence. These layers encompass the foundational principles, the specific terminologies employed in the definitions, and the associated conditions attributed to these terms. However, it is observed that, regarding the first two layers, Quranic exegeses often focus on a unilateral perspective that emphasizes only one essential element of knowledge, namely the knower. Regarding the third layer, they also place emphasis on delineating the characteristics of the knower. Furthermore, Quranic exegeses provide limited elaboration on the intricate relationship between knowledge and objects, the dynamic between the knower and the known, and the properties and connections that exist between the known and the knower, which all of these are emphasized by Mullā Ṣadrā. Consequently, consulting these Quranic exegeses alone proves inadequate in attaining a comprehensive definition of knowledge by presence. Moreover, although they address philosophical matters to some extent, these exegeses do not consistently apply philosophical principles to every aspect of their exegetical discussions.