عنوان مقاله [English]
It is very significant to identify the origins of the neologism, “al-wilāyat al-takwīnīyya”, coined by the scholars of kalām in the School of Baghdad. In this paper, we will examine the view of the Scholars of Baghdad concerning the problem of wilāyat-i takwīnī with a descriptive-analytical method. Some contemporary scholars characterize wilāyat-i takwīnī with distinctive features such as: the creation of the whole or part of the world by Divine Saints (their being efficient causes of the world); sustenance of the whole or part of the world by Divine Saints (their being sustaining causes of the world); their managing the whole system of the world or part of it; their mediation in all or some divine grace; the obedience of the whole world or part of it from the Saint; the realization of miracles; and performing extraordinary actions. Of these features of wilāyat-i takwīnī, the only one that can be found in the view of the Scholars of Baghdad is the performance of extraordinary actions by the Shiite Imams (a), ignoring the rest. In this paper, we will show that some Scholars of Baghdad, such as al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, al-Sayyid al-Murtaḍā, al-Shaykh al-Ṭūsī, and al-Muḥaqqiq al-Karājakī, never cited the hadiths concerning the miracles of the Imams (a) in their work. They are explicit that miracles and extraordinary interventions in the world sometimes attributed to the Imams (a) are acts of God happening to the prophets and the Saints.